Members of the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers have begun voting in a fresh ballot on the admission of women as members at the Muirfield club.
The postal ballot will be independently scrutinised, and the outcome is expected to be announced in mid-March 2017.
A vote last year on a resolution to admit women as members narrowly failed to achieve the two-thirds majority required to change club rules with just 64% in favour of the resolution and 36% against.
The R&A responded immediately by removing Muirfield from the Open rota, but chief executive Martin Slumbers said they would reconsider if "the policy at the club should change".
Voting in favour of the resolution to admit women as members is recommended, unanimously, by The Captain, Captain Nominate and the Club Committee of the Honourable Company.
Four-time major winner Rory McIlroy said last year that he hoped the club would vote to change its rules and admit women.
He said: "It's not right to host the world's biggest tournament at a place that does not allow women to be members. Hopefully Muirfield can see some sense and we can get it back on The Open rota."